2nd Clinical Semester


ECTS Course Code
Compulsory subjects
Hours/ Semester
ECTS Credits
6-M-O-P-3
Grundlagen klinischer Untersuchung
Basic principles of Clinical Examination Part II
(Surgery, Gynaecology, Otorhinolaryngology (ENT), Paediatrics, Psychiatry, Urology)

Content: Principles of clinical examination. Demonstration of physical examination methods, use of examination techniques using standard equipment.

Assessment: -

Knowledge and skills achieved: -
84
5
6-M-O-P-1
6-M-V-L-10
Mikrobiologie, Virologie
Microbiology, Virology including
- Practical and
- Lecture

Content: Etiology and pathogenesis of infectious diseases; microbiological diagnosis of infectious diseases; simple methods for isolating and identifying pathogens; role of antibodies in the diagnosis of infectious diseases; techniques for detecting antibodies against pathogens; susceptibility testing of bacteria, fungi and viruses against antimicrobial agents; disinfection and sterilisation; laboratory safety

Assessment: MCQ examination and practical / oral examination, check of practical record

Knowledge and skills achieved: Knowledge of infectious diseases and their causative agents; knowledge of the relevant diagnostic procedures including serological techniques and their limitations; detailed knowledge of the methods for obtaining suitable clinical materials for diagnosing infectious diseases; knowledge of the principles of antimicrobial chemotherapy.
56
28
6
6-M-O-P-2
6-M-V-L-9
Hygiene
Hygiene including
- Practical and
- Lecture

Content: Environmental (water, soil, air, sewage) hygiene, environmental medicine and health, hospital hygiene and epidemiology, surveillance of nosocomial infections; outbreak management; infection prevention and control, sterilisation, disinfection and disinsection, isolation measurements; food hygiene, preservation and processing, Immunology, Immunoprophylaxis and vaccinations, travel and health;
occupational health and diseases; occupational influences (noise, physical, psychological, chemical and biological factors); occupational hygiene and legislation prevention of occupational accidents, sick building syndrome and building related illnesses;
introduction into social medicine, problems of disease aetiology, prevention of diseases, health education, rehabilitation, structure of medical care, social security, health economics

Assessment: Quality of seminar co-operation and presentation

Knowledge and skills achieved: Basic knowledge in the cited topics; Practice of scientific working (data base inquiry) and presentation
56
14




5
6-M-O-S-4
6-M-V-L-8
Pharmakologie, Toxikologie
Pharmacology, Toxicology including
- Seminar and
- Lecture

Content:
  • General Pharmacology: Modes of drug administration, drug absorption, bioavailability; distribution of drugs in the organism; drug metabolism; pharmacokinetics for a single or repeated administration(s); drug excretion; drug action: receptor-mediated and receptor-independent: agonists, antagonists and principles of structure-activity relationship; dose-response relationship; adverse drug reactions; interactions between drugs; individual variability of the response to drugs, pharmacogenetics; therapeutic index and evaluation of the risk/benefit relationship of a drug; development of new drugs; the role of Industry, Government and Academics
  • Systematic Pharmacology: Drugs which act at the autonomic nervous system: muscarine receptor agonists and antagonists, cholinesterase inhibitors; ganglionic and neuromuscular blockers; α- and β-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists. Drugs acting in the central nervous system: opioid analgesics: agonists, partial agonists and antagonists; anti-Parkinson drugs; benzodiazepines; other hypnotics and antianxiety drugs; psychostimulants and hallucinogenic drugs; general anaesthetics; antidepressants and mood stabilising drugs; antipsychotics, antileptic drugs. Anti-inflammatory and local anaesthetic drugs: local anaesthetics, antimigraine drugs, non-steroidal antiinflammatory and analgesic drugs; antirheumatics modifying the disease; anti-gout drugs; antihistamines. Drugs influencing cardiovascularand kidney function: anticoagulants; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and osmotic diuretics; loop og Henle’s diuretics, thiazides, potassium savers; ACE-inhibitors and H AT1 receptor-antagonists; calcium channel blockers; vasodilators; thrombolytic agents; drugs used for treatment of hemorrhages; antidyslipidemics. Digestive system drugs: H2 -receptor antagonists, protonic pump inhibitors; antacids;prostaglandins antiemetics: dopamine and H 5-HT3 receptor antagonists; prokinetic, laxative and antidiarrheal drugs. Respiratory system: drugs against allergic rhinitis, chronical obstructive bronchopneumopathy, cough; Hβ2-adrenoceptor agonists; corticosteroids, xanthines; criteria for the choice of antiasthmatic drugs. Endocrine system drugs: hypothalamic and pituitary hormones, thyroid hormones; insulin preparations; oral hypoglycaemic drugs; estrogens; progestogens; androgens; adrenocorticoid hormones; contraceptives. Hemopoietic drugs: iron, folic acids; vit. B12; erythropoietin; colony-stimulating factors. Osseous metabolism drugs: vit. D; calcium; biphosphonates; estrogens; calcitonin.
  • Antiinfections chemotherapeitics: antibiotics influenting the cell wall; drugs for therapy in infections by worms; classification of antimicrobiotics; bacteriostatic and bactericidal drugs, spectrum of action; drug resistance; complications in antibiotic therapy; choosing antimicrobic drugs; sulphonamides; trimetoprim and cotrimoxazol; penicillins, cephalosporins and other β-lactames; tetracyclines and chloramphenicol; aminoglycosides, macrolides, lincosamides; quinolones; urinary system antiseptics; fluoroquinolones; antituberculosis agents; antifungal agents; chemotherapy in trypanosomiasis and leishmaniosis; drugs against respiratory viruses and herpes virus; anti-HIV drugs; drugs vs. viral hepatitis. Antineoplastic chemotherapeutics: principles of antineoplastic chemotherapy; antimetabolites, cytotoxic antibiotics, alkylating agents, drugs acting at microtubules; steroid hormones and antagonists.
  • Toxicology: Experimental methods of controlling toxicity of drugs and xenobiotics; their toxic manifestation; dose-response and time-effect relations; antidotes and other antitoxin measures: plant toxins; animal toxins; toxic gases; insecticide agents, heavy metals; carcinogenic agents; alcohols; nicotine.


Assessment: written examination and graded oral presentation

Knowledge and skills achieved: Profound knowledge in General and Systematic Pharmacology as a basis for further studies in Clinical Pharmacology and for treatment of patients with drugs
112
28
11
6-M-O-S-5
Allgemeinmedizin
General Medicine

- Seminar

Content: Introduction (Special relation patient/doctor; Long-term perspective; Special functions of GP; Meaning of Bio-Psycho-Social; Unselected spectrum of diseases)
Chronic diseases (Different approach; Hypertension; Diabetes; COPD; CHD; Myocardial dysfunction)
Palliative Care (Ethic aspects; Patient’s will; Pain therapy schedules; Accompanying of the family)
Multimorbidity (Geriatric assessment; Pharmacological rules; House visits; Coordina­tive functions)
Drug/Alcohol abuse ( Diagnosis; Typical symptoms; Co-Morbidities; Techniques of communication; Options of therapy; Complications)
Preventive Care ( Unique role of GP; Individual or group consulting; Sectors of involvement; Options)
Acute Illnesses ( Emergencies in the private clinic; so called common diseases; Differential diagnosis of the most frequent incidents of consultation)

Assessment: written examination
14
1
6-M-O-S-7
Gesprächsführung und Kommunikation
Conversation Guidance and Communication

- Seminar

Content: Communication and conversation with patients are part of the medical diagnostics and treatment. The following topics are part of the course:
  • Psychosocial aspects as parts of case history and planning of treatment
  • Different settings for conversation (i.e. information diagnosis / prognosis...)
  • Basics in diagnostics of psychic „reactions“ (i.e. Reactive depression) and coping strategies
  • Patient-oriented communication
  • Handling of emotions
  • communication in the team / with other professions
  • Doctor-centred aspects:
  • Handling of own affects
  • Handling of criticism, conflicts, medical malpractice
  • Work organisation
  • Documentation


Assessment: Seminar paper to one of the main topics

Knowledge and skills achieved: The student should be able to
  • conduct diagnostic and therapeutic conversations with patients
  • collect the essential information in an effective manner
  • deal appropriately with arising emotions
  • assign psychopathological symptoms to their meaning
  • recognise and consider the influence of psychosocial aspects such as addiction, violence etc.
  • reflect on his personal part in communication difficulties
  • deal with own emotions as well as with mistakes, criticism and conflicts


Finally, the basics of time management and documentation are to be learned with the objective of optimised patient care.
14
1